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 The objective of this article is to theoretically shed light on the relationship between the quality of the environment, the institutional reality of corruption, and economic growth in the first instance. Secondly, we attempt to empirically study the direct and indirect effects of the institutional reality and environmental quality on economic growth in the MENA region before and during COVID-19 while applying simultaneous equations during the period (2018-2022). Among the main results found, the pandemic underscored the need for sustainable development and resilient environmental policies in the region.

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Transparency International is a global movement working in over 100 countries to end the injustice of corruption.

The African Development Bank Group (ADB) is a multilateral development finance institution headquartered in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

The World Bank Group is one of the world’s largest sources of funding and knowledge for developing countries