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The Banu Abbas regime, which spanned from the 8th to the 13th century, was a pivotal period in Islamic history marked by significant advancements in various fields, including mathematics and physics. Muslim scholars made remarkable contributions that not only preserved ancient knowledge but also laid the foundation for further developments in these disciplines. This abstract focuses on the contributions of Muslim scholars to mathematics and physics during the Banu Abbas era.In mathematics, scholars such as Muhammad al-Khwarizmi played a pivotal role in introducing the Hindu-Arabic numeral system to the Islamic world, a system that is now widely used globally. Al-Khwarizmi's seminal work "Al-Kitab al-Mukhtasar fi Hisab al-Jabr wal-Muqabala" laid the groundwork for algebra, a term derived from the Arabic word "al-jabr." This text, along with other mathematical treatises, explored solutions to quadratic and cubic equations, providing a systematic approach that significantly influenced the development of algebraic principles.Additionally, the translation movement in the Banu Abbas period facilitated the transfer of Greek and Roman mathematical knowledge to the Islamic world. Scholars like Thabit ibn Qurra translated and expanded upon works by ancient mathematicians like Euclid and Archimedes, contributing to the enrichment of mathematical understanding.In the realm of physics, Muslim scholars made groundbreaking contributions, particularly in the field of optics. The works of Ibn al-Haytham, known as Alhazen, were instrumental in shaping the understanding of light and vision. His "Book of Optics" explored the principles of reflection, refraction, and the anatomy of the eye, laying the foundation for the modern understanding of optics. Alhazen's experiments and observations on light and optics were foundational for subsequent European scientists, including the likes of Kepler and Galileo.

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