# PRACTICES AND BELIEFS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION IN STEAM ENVIRONMENTS.

## Main Article Content

## Abstract

*The article presents eight research-based mathematics teaching practices, outlined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in "From Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (2014). These practices focus on strengthening the teaching and learning of mathematics and encompass aspects such as setting goals, promoting reasoning, using mathematical representations, and obtaining evidence of students' thinking.*

*The article then explores the influence of teachers' beliefs on teaching practices. It describes how beliefs act as cognitive and affective filters, influencing the interpretation of knowledge and experience. The definition of beliefs is adopted as sustained psychological interpretations of the world that are held to be true. In addition, belief systems, which organize beliefs around specific ideas or objects, are discussed.*

*The text suggests that teachers' beliefs, deeply rooted and influenced by cultural factors, play a crucial role in their teaching practices. The complex relationship between beliefs and practices is highlighted, with some research suggesting that beliefs influence instructional decisions, while others indicate that practice can affect beliefs.*

*It delves into the beliefs of teachers in the context of mathematics teaching, highlighting two main orientations: constructivist orientation and transmission orientation. Teachers with constructivist beliefs hold that students should construct their own knowledge, while those with transmission beliefs see teaching as the transmission of knowledge. Teachers' beliefs about the nature of mathematics and students' mathematical thinking are also explored, showing how these beliefs impact instructional practices.*

## Article Details

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

## References

Barkatsas, A. T., & Malone, J. (2005). A typology of mathematics teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning and instructional practices. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education.

Battista, M.T. (1994). Teachers' Beliefs and the Reform Movement in Mathematics Education. The Phi Delta Kappan - Berliner, & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology. New York: Macmillan.

Beswick, K. (2012). Teachers' beliefs about school mathematics and mathematicians' mathematics and their relationship to practice. Educational Studies in Mathematics.

Buzeika, A. (1996). Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: The Chicken or the Egg. Merga.

Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher.

Brown, C. A., & Cooney, T. J. (1982). Research on Teacher Education: A Philosophical Orientation. Journal of Research and Development in Education.

Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Franke, M. L., Levi, L., & Empson, S. B. (1999). Math for Kids: Cognitively guided instruction. NH: Heinemann.

Carpenter, T. P., Fennema, E., Peterson, P. L., Chiang, C. P., & Loef, M. (1989). Using Children's Mathematical Thinking Knowledge in Classroom Teaching: An Experimental Study. Journal of American Educational Research.

National Commission for Excellence in Education. (1983). A Nation at Risk: The Imperative of Education Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Press.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1989). Curricular and Assessment Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1995). Standards for the evaluation of school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2014). From Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. Reston, VA: Author

Dewey, J. (1899). The School and Society, Second Edition (1915). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dickey, E.M. (2010). Encyclopedia of Educational Reform and Dissent. Thomas C. Hunt, James C. Carper, Thomas J. Lasley II, and C. Daniel Raisch (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Ellis, MW, & Berry, R. Q. (2005). The Paradigm Shift in Mathematics Education: Explanations and Implications of Reforming Conceptions of Teaching and Learning. The Math Educator.

Fennema, E., Carpenter, T. P., Franke, M. L., Levi, L., Jacobs, V. R., & Empson, S. B. (1996). A longitudinal study of learning to use children's thinking in teaching mathematics. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education.

Fennema, E. & Franke, M. L. (1992). Teachers' knowledge and its impact. In Grouws, D.A. (Ed). (1992). Research Handbook on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: A Project of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics., (pp. 147-164). New York, NY, England: Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc.

Francis, D. I. C. (2015). Dispelling the notion of inconsistencies in teachers' mathematical beliefs and practices: a 3-year case study. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Training.

Goldin, G., Rösken, B., & Törner, G. (2009). Beliefs: it is no longer a hidden variable in the teaching and learning processes of mathematics. Beliefs and attitudes in mathematics education: new research results.

Green, TF (1971). Teaching activities. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Grootenboer, P. (2008). Change of mathematical beliefs in future elementary school teachers. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Training.

Goldsmith, L. T., & Schifter, D. (1997). Understanding Teachers in Transition: Characteristics of a Model for the Development of Mathematics Education. Teachers of Mathematics in Transition.

Handal, B. (2003). Teachers' Mathematical Beliefs: A Review. The Mathematics Educator.

Handal, B., & Herrington, A. (2003). Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs and Curriculum Reform. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education.

Herrera, T. A. & Owens, D. T. (2001). The New Mathematics?: Two Reform Movements in Mathematics Education. Theory in practice.

Karp, K.S. (1991). Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes Toward Mathematics: The Impact on Students' Autonomous Learning Skills. School of Science and Mathematics.

Lavé, J. (1988). Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics, and Culture in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Macleod, D.B. (2003). From Consensus to Controversy: The History of NCTM Standards. In G. M. A. Stanic & J. Kilpatrick (Eds.), A History of School Mathematics. Reston, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

McGee, J. R., Polly, D., & Wang, C. (2013). Guide teachers in the use of a standards-based mathematics curriculum: teacher perceptions and subsequent instructional practices following an intensive professional development program. School of Science and Mathematics.

Nespor, J. (1987). The Role of Beliefs in Teaching Practice. Journal of Curricular Studies.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers' Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning Up a Disordered Construct. Journal of Educational Research.

Peressini, D., Borko, H., Romagnano, L., Knuth, E., & Willis, C. (2004). A Conceptual Framework for Learning to Teach Secondary Mathematics: A Situational Perspective. Educational Studies in Mathematics.

Peterson, P. L., Fennema, E., Carpenter, T. P., & Loef, M. (1989). Beliefs of the teacher's pedagogical content in mathematics. Cognition and Instruction.

Polly, D., McGee, J. R., Wang, C., Lamber, R. G., Pugalee, D. K., & Johnson, S. (2013). The association between teachers' beliefs, enacted practices, and student learning in mathematics. The Mathematics Educator, 22(2).

Peterson, P. L., Fennema, E., Carpenter, T. P., & Loef, M. (1989). Beliefs of the teacher's pedagogical content in mathematics. Cognition and Instruction.

Philipp, R.A. (2007). Mathematics Teachers. Beliefs and Affect'. In: F. K. Lester, Jr. (ed.): Second Research Handbook on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Quigley, C. F., & Herro, D. (2016). Finding Joy in the Unknown: Implementing STEAM Teaching Practices in Middle School Science and Math Classrooms. Journal of Education Sciences and Technology.

Raymond, A.M. (1997). Inconsistency between a beginning elementary school teacher's mathematical beliefs and teaching practice. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education.

Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. Research Manual on Teacher Education.

Ross, J. A., Hogaboam-Gray, A., & McDougall, D. (2002). Research on reform in mathematics education, 1993-2000. Alberta Journal of Educational Research.

Rokeach, M. (1968). Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values: A Theory of Organization and Change.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (1985). Meta-cognitive and epistemological issues in mathematical comprehension. Teaching and Learning Mathematical Problem Solving: Multiple Research Perspectives.

Stigler, J. W., & Hiebert, J. (2009). The Teacher Gap: The World's Best Teacher Ideas for Improving Classroom Education. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. Stipek, D. J., Givvin, K. B., Salmon, J. M., & Mac Gyvers, V. L. (2001). Teachers' beliefs and practices related to the teaching of Mathematics. Teacher Education and Training.

Thompson, A.G. (1984). The relationship of teachers' conceptions of mathematics and the teaching of mathematics to educational practice. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 15(2).

Thompson, A. G. (1992). Teachers' Beliefs and Conceptions: A Synthesis of Research. Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc.

Thompson, A. G., Thompson, P. W., Boyd, B. A., & Calculational, B. A. (1994). Computational and conceptual orientations in the teaching of mathematics. Professional Development for Mathematics Teachers: 1994 Yearbook. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Thorndike, L.A. (1923). The psychology of arithmetic. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Wenger, E. C., & Snyder, W. M. (2000). Communities of Practice: Organizational Boundaries. Harvard Business Review.

Wilkins, J. L. (2008). The relationship between content knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of primary school teachers. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Training.

Wilson, B. G., & Myers, K. M. (2000). Cognition placed in the theoretical and practical context. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments.

Yackman, G. (2007). Education STE@M. Retrieved from http://steamedu.com