Main Article Content
Population growth and water scarcity, and the common interests of governments over water, such as rivers, have made water a decisive factor in government policy. Today, water has entered the field of relations and disputes between governments as a competitive and desirable material, which is why water resources (such as rivers) are often considered as a security problem at the national and international level. ; Because in many countries, water resources management has created fierce competition for dominance and control of transnational water resources, Iran's future is geographically in the dry land belt. Due to its topographic features, Iran loses about 8 billion cubic meters of water annually due to the flow of several rivers to Iraq. Therefore, we are obliged to exploit this great natural wealth. However, we must remember that the use of these resources will have internal and external hydro-political consequences. The first and most important consequence will affect Iran-Iraq relations. Due to geopolitical issues, relations between the two countries have been turbulent in recent decades. However, it seems that the Iran-Iraq relationship could be affected by the water issue. Due to Turkey's activities in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Iraq is currently facing problems. Therefore, Iraqis may react to Iran's water transfer projects in the small Zab, Alvand and Sirvan basins and resort to deterrent measures. At the same time, these basins are mostly located in Kurdish areas, which are mostly Sunni, and any activity in these basins can provoke the Kurds in the region. The present study uses a descriptive-analytical method to evaluate the hydro-political nature of these basins and their political consequences. At the same time, the present study seeks to provide appropriate approaches to reduce the political and social costs of implementing these projects.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Afshin Y (1994). Iranian Rivers, Ministry of Energy, Tehran, Iran .
Ahmadzadeh Z (2004). “Water Crisis in Iran and Sustainable Development”,Iran, Tehran, Saba Journa p. 13. (Please cite in the work)
Alizadeh J (2004), Hydropolitics of Hirmand River and Its Effect on the Relationship between Iran and Afghanistan, MA Thesis, Tarbiat Moddarres University.Tehran,Iran.
Autotile G, Dally S, Rutledge P (2001). Geopolitical Thought in the Twentieth Century, Dr. Mohammad Reza Hafeznia and Hashem Nasiri (trans.),Iran, Tehran: Bureau of Political and International Studies. (Please cite in the work)
Barlow M (2004). “Water, a Serious Commodity”, Seyahate Gharb Monthly, Year 2, Iran, Tehran August, 2004, p. 13. (Please cite in the work)
Bigdeli A (1989). Political - Economical History of Iraq, Tehran: Institute of Historical Studies and Publications of Heritage of Nations.
Elhance A (1999). "Hydropolitics in the Third World : conflict and cooperation in nternational river basins' Washington, D.C. United States Inst. of Peace Press.
Geographical Organization of Armed Forces (2006). Atlas of Iranian Borders, Publications of the Geographical Organization of Armed Forces (limited and internal publication).
Farinosi, F., Giupponi, C., Reynaud, A., Ceccherini, G., Carmona-Moreno, C., De Roo, A., Gonzalez-Sanchez, D., & Bidoglio, G. (2018). An innovative approach to the assessment of hydro-political risk: A spatially explicit, data driven indicator of hydro-political issues. Global Environmental Change, 52, 286–313.
Bernauer, T., & Böhmelt, T. (2020). International conflict and cooperation over freshwater resources. Nature Sustainability, 3, 350–356.
Hussein, H., Conker, A., & Grandi, M. (2020). Small is beautiful but not trendy: Understanding the allure of big hydraulic works in the Euphrates–Tigris and Nile waterscapes. Mediterranean Politics, 1–24. University of London.
Saklani, U., Shrestha, P. P., Mukherji, A., & Scott, C. A. (2020). Hydro-energy cooperation in South Asia: Prospects for transboundary energy and water security. Environmental Science and Policy, 114, 22–34.
Williams, J. M. (2021). Is three a crowd? River basin institutions and the governance of the Mekong River. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 37(4), 720–740.
Wine, M. L. (2020). Toward strong science to support equitable water sharing in securitized transboundary watersheds. Biologia, 75(6), 907–915.
Barua, A., Deka, A., Gulati, V., Vij, S., Liao, X., & Qaddumi, H. (2019). Re-Interpreting Cooperation in Transboundary Waters: Bringing Experiences from the Brahmaputra Basin. Water, 11(12), 2589.