Main Article Content
Although the toxicity of lead has been known for thousands of years, lead remains one of the most common environmental hazards for humane. There are many sources of lead exposure, such as soil contaminated from years of leaded gasoline use, lead dust accidentally brought home from parents’ workplaces and hobby areas, lead in plumbing, and some imported products and traditional remedies. Elevated levels of blood lead occurring during the first years of life. Exposure to lead among workers in our country is in the field of work, and that the most work sites in which lead has accumulated are industrial areas, especially works that are used in oil products, All these places are polluted with lead and increase in the percentage of lead among workers, this to be public health problem
Objective: This study aimed to determine levels and nature of lead of occupational workers exposure to lead after 10 year to the previous study conducted in 2010 in Duhok city, Kurdistan, Iraq.
Material and Methods: A cross – sectional study design was conducted on 520 workers exposure to lead to determine the level & Natural of lead exposure. Workers. The study was conducted between 1 October 2022 and 1 Jan 2023.
The samples were male workers age range from 10 to 64 years. The workers were chosen as a convenient sample so that nearly equal number of workers from each area included: Gasoline power generators (n=120) .Industrial urban area (n=100), Traffic policeman (n=100), Petrol failing station (n=100), Petrol storage (n=50) and Battery repairing workshop (n=50).
Pre-tested questionnaire was designed to obtain information on age, residence, current occupation job period in year, and current history of cigarette smoking.. Blood lead level was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Perkin Elmer Using a standardized procedure published by the company. Dust lead level was analyzed using the lead test kit (ABOTE × ENTERPRISES limited Ontario and a NOM).
The mean blood lead values among the sample was 19.0 ug/dl, with a standard error of 0.58 and range of 8.2 to 62.6.Of the 520 individuals tested, 59.0% subjects had blood lead level of 10 – 25 ug/dl, while 27.0% of these subjects had blood lead level 25 – 50 ug/dl and 5% had blood lead level > 50 ug/dl .The mean blood lead levels of the battery repairing workers (47.3 ug/dl) was significantly higher (P> 0.001; for all) compared to the gasoline power generator workers, petrol station, traffic policemen, petrol storage, and general work in industrial urban area who had mean blood lead levels of 16.5 ug/dl, 19.7 ug/dl , 11.5 ug/dl, and 14.4 ug/dl; respectively .A statistically-significant relationship was found between blood lead levels and age , amount of cigarettes smoked and dust lead level.
The conclude from this study the percentage of the lead in the blood may increase in the all group within study, duo to the large occurring in all aspects of life in Duhok governorate, where the number of generator increase from 370 in 2011 to 1500 in 2022 an so on the number of petrol stations multiplied dozens of time and so on the number of luxury cars, the number of cars, and the number of the building ,the multiplicity of industrial places ,as well as the population , all of this leads to an increase in the pollution and an increase in the percentage of lead among workers in this field.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Fourth Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, January 2019. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC 2019.
National Toxicology Program. Health effects of low-level lead evaluation. Research Triangle Park, NC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2012. Available at: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/hat/noms/lead/index.html (Accessed on November 15, 2021).
Sullivan M. More evidence of unpublished industry studies of lead smelter/refinery workers. Int J Occup Environ Health 2015; 21:308.
Lanphear BP, Rauch S, Auinger P, et al. Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Public Health 2018; 3:e177.
ABLES Data Summaries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ables/data.html (Accessed on November 15, 2021).
Alarcon WA, State Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) Program Investigators. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Employed Adults - United States, 1994-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016; 63:59.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Potential risk for lead exposure in dental offices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001; 50:873.
WHO. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000;78(9): 1068-1077
Cheevaporn V.,Norramit P. Tanaka K. Trend in lead content of airborne particles and mass of PM10 in the Metropolitan Bankok . Journal of health Science 2004; 50(1):86-91.
Al-Dosky · 2012 · Cited by 10 — A cross-sectional study was made of blood lead levels of 820 individuals and of dust and of air lead levels in urban, suburban and rural residential areas. Mean ...
Lanphear BP, Dietrich K, Auinger P, Cox C. Cognitive deficits associated with blood lead concentrations <10 μg/dL in US children and adolescents. Public Health Rep. 2000;115:521–529. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Forte G., Madeddu R., Tolu P., Asara Y., Marchal J.A., Bocca B. Reference intervals for blood Cd and Pb in the general population of Sardinia (Italy). Int J Hyg Envir Heal, 2011; 214(2): 102-109.
S Nakhaee · 2019 · Cited by 13 — This exploratory investigation aimed to measure blood lead levels and associated risk factors in exposed workers in Iran, and to derive ...
L Han · 2018 · Cited by 31 — In summary, we found that BLL was positively associated with SBP and DBP and with the morbidity of hypertension in occupational populations with.
Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 21st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 739.
akthithasan K, Lévy P, Poupon J, Garnier R. A comparative study of edetate calcium disodium and dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of lead poisoning in adults. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Nov;56(11):1143-1149. [PubMed]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Blood Lead Levels in Children." (Page last reviewed: May 28, 2020). https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/prevention/blood-leadlevels.htm (Accessed June 23rd, 2020)