Main Article Content
This research paper examines the nature of the welfare state as an instrument of redistributive justice. Critiques of the welfare state are explored, followed by an analysis of justifications for its existence. Evidence from the past decades is examined in the context of social justice, with a focus on social inequalities. The paper concludes with several key findings: firstly, welfare states have played a significant role in reducing poverty in the past. However, there is evidence to suggest that the impact on inequality has been largely negative. Additionally, the welfare state has not functioned as an effective means of achieving redistributive justice. Finally, the paper argues that in the present situation, we need to develop solutions that go beyond the welfare state to effectively address social inequalities. Overall, this paper contributes to the ongoing debate on the role of the welfare state in promoting redistributive justice and highlights the need for innovative approaches to address social inequalities.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Alves, C., & Guizzo, D. (2023). When economic theory meets policy: Barbara Wootton and the creation of the British welfare state. The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 30(1), 22-39.
Anand, P., Hunter, G., Carter, I., Dowding, K., Guala, F., & Van Hees, M. (2009). The Development of Capability Indicators. Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, 10(1), 125–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649880802675366
Auguste, D. (2018). Income Inequality, Globalization, and the Welfare State: Evidence from 23 Industrial Countries, 1990-2009. Sociological Forum, 33(3), 666–689. https://doi.org/10.1111/socf.12437
Bhambra, G. K., & Holmwood, J. (2018). Colonialism, Postcolonialism and the Liberal Welfare State. New Political Economy, 23(5), 574–587. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2017.1417369
Bourdieu. (1986). Distinction. Routledge.
Bourdieu, P. (2002). Forms of Capital. Journal of Economic Sociology, 3(5), 60–74. https://doi.org/10.17323/1726-3247-2002-5-60-74
Cohen, M. (2012, October 10). T.H. Marshall’s “Citizenship and Social Class.” Dissent Magazine. https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/t-h-marshalls-citizenship-and-social-class
Dale, & Foster. (1986). Feminists and State Welfare. Routledge & Kegan Paul Books.
Sen, A., 2019. Development as freedom (No. 1, pp. 1-xvi). Knopf,.
Dillon, N. (2015). Radical Inequalities: China’s Revolutionary Welfare State in Comparative Perspective (Harvard East Asian Monographs) (Illustrated). Harvard University Asia Center.
Esping-Andersen, G., & Myles, J. (2011). Economic Inequality and the Welfare State. Oxford Handbooks Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199606061.013.0025
Franko, W., & Witko, C. (2017). The New Economic Populism: How States Respond to Economic Inequality (Illustrated). Oxford University Press.
Fraser, D. (2022). The Beveridge Report (Routledge Studies in Modern British History) (1st ed.). Routledge.
Galbraith, J. K. (2022). The Affluent Society Second Edition, Revised. Houghton & Miffllin Co.
Garfinkel, I., Rainwater, L., & Smeeding, T. M. (2006). A re-examination of welfare states and inequality in rich nations: How in-kind transfers and indirect taxes change the story. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(4), 897–919. https://doi.org/10.1002/pam.20213
Gorz, A. (1999). Reclaiming Work: Beyond the Wage-Based Society (1st ed.). Polity.
Graeber, D. (2016). The Utopia of Rules: On Technology, Stupidity, and the Secret Joys of Bureaucracy (Reprint). Melville House.
Hasell, J. (2022, October 17). Poverty. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/poverty
Hayek, D. F. A. (2005). The Road to Serfdom. Institute Of Economic Affairs.
Hayek, F. A., & Hamowy, R. (2020). The Constitution of Liberty: The Definitive Edition (The Collected Works of F.A. Hayek) (1st ed.). Routledge.
Heckman, J., & Landersø, R. (2021). Lessons from Denmark about Inequality and Social Mobility. National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w28543
Khan, N. R., & Yawar, R. B. (2020). Invisible Workers: Economic Value of Unpaid Female Family Helper’s Work. Ilkogretim Online, 19(4), 4070-4083.
Kus, B. (2006). Neoliberalism, Institutional Change and the Welfare State: The Case of Britain and France. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 47(6), 488–525. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020715206070268
Marshall, T. H. (2021). Citizenship and Social Class, and Other Essays. Hassell Street Press.
Page. (2007). Revisiting the Welfare State. Open University Press.
Palme, J. (2006). Welfare states and inequality: Institutional designs and distributive outcome. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 24(4), 387–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rssm.2006.10.004
Pankaj, A. K. (2019). Caste and Discrimination in Welfare: Social Exclusion of Dalits in Uttar Pradesh. Contemporary Voice of Dalit, 11(2), 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/2455328x18821447
Piketty, T., & Goldhammer, A. (2017). Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Reprint). Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press.
Piketty, T., & Goldhammer, A. (2020). Capital and Ideology. Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press.
The 1970’s as Policy Watershed. (2022, January 3). Social Welfare History Project. https://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/programs/health-nutrition/the-1970s-as-policy-watershed/
Vanhuysse, P., Medgyesi, M., & Gal, R. I. (2021). Welfare states as lifecycle redistribution machines: Decomposing the roles of age and socio-economic status shows that European tax-and-benefit systems primarily redistribute across age groups. Plos One, 16(8), e0255760. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255760
Wang, C., & Caminada, K. (2011). Disentangling Income Inequality and the Redistributive Effect of Social Transfers and Taxes in 36 LIS Countries. Department of Economics Research Memorandum.
Ward, D. E. (2005). The White Welfare State: The Racialization of U.S. Welfare Policy (First). University of Michigan Press.
Wilson. (1977). Women and the Welfare State. Tavistock.