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The current study examines the multifaceted challenges and opportunities that are confronted and yet available to Afghan refugees in Pakistan, focusing on the legal, economic, social, security and humanitarian aspects. Afghanistan neighbouring Pakistan has a long and traditional, cultural as well as religious history along with sharing borders through trade for centuries. It is obvious that ancient civilizations and empires have shaped their enduring geo-strategic and geo-economic significance through several factors. Consequently, the country became a unique geographical settlement for many dynasties.  However, since the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, Pakistan has become a safe and more accessible host for millions of Afghan refugees seeking refuge from conflict, violence, and political instability. The study aims to explore the various factors associated with Afghan refugees, focusing on the socio-legal, humanitarian as well economic considerations in the integration process despite some security concerns. Similarly, despite making millions of sacrifices, there is a huge gap that has ultimately affected the policy measures for both countries in developing a conducive atmosphere for trust building. Further, hosting millions of refugees for the last fifty years, the government in collaboration with multiple national and international organizations had extended legal, economic, and humanitarian aid for the re-integration of the displaced individuals. The study thus is important to focus on the stability, essentially economic, legal and human development aspects to improve the living condition of the bordering communities under the umbrella of legal and humanitarian perspectives.

Article Details

Author Biography



1Lecturer, Department of Law, University of Malakand

2Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, QAU Islamabad, Pakistan

3Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences, University of Swabi, Pakistan

4Department of Archaeology University of Malakand

5Dean Faculty of Social Sciences University Malakand 


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