Main Article Content



This study examines the lack of consensus among experts regarding the precise definition of de-radicalization. However, it highlights the identification of various factors that have been identified as potentially beneficial in the process of de-radicalization. This study examines the various factors that contribute to the well-being and recovery of individuals who have experienced trauma. Specifically, the focus is on education, familial and community connections, post-trauma employment assistance, and psychosocial support for trauma victims. By analysing these factors, this research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted elements that influence the successful rehabilitation and reintegration of individuals following traumatic experiences. This study examines the prevailing findings from a multitude of studies on counter-radicalization efforts, revealing a consensus that effective interventions necessitate a multifaceted approach. Specifically, this research underscores the significance of community reintegration as a pivotal component in preventing individuals from becoming radicalised. This study examines the diverse range of strategies and programs implemented by various nations in their efforts to facilitate the disengagement of radicals from extremist ideologies and violent behaviors. By analysing the approaches employed, this research aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the global landscape of counter-radicalization initiatives. The findings shed light on the multifaceted nature of these interventions, highlighting the diverse methods employed by different countries to address radicalization. By synthesizing existing literature and empirical evidence, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the effectiveness and limitations of various strategies in promoting deradicalization and countering violent extremism. This study examines the limited understanding surrounding the indirect impacts of humanitarian programs on the process of de-radicalization. While existing evidence suggests that the promotion of humanitarian values can potentially serve as a deterrent to violent extremist ideologies and offer armed groups an alternative value system, the specific mechanisms through which humanitarian initiatives contribute to de-radicalization remain largely unexplored. By addressing this research gap, this study aims to shed light on the potential indirect effects of humanitarian programs on countering violent extremism and fostering de-radicalization processes. This study examines the efficacy of existing programs aimed at assisting individuals, highlighting the prevailing circumstances surrounding their effectiveness. This article provides potentially valuable insights for professionals operating within similar contexts. This research article examines the efforts to combat violent extremism in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, with a specific focus on the process of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of former members of armed groups. The study explores the multifaceted strategies employed to facilitate the transition of these individuals from military engagement to civilian life. By analysing the challenges and successes encountered during this reintegration process, the article sheds light on the complex dynamics involved in countering violent extremism and fostering social reintegration in Pakistan. This study examines the relationship between the reduction of aid and the propensity of individuals to join radical groups. Drawing upon existing research, the analysis highlights the potential consequences of cutting aid on radicalization. The findings suggest that there exists a positive correlation between the reduction of aid and the likelihood of individuals joining radical groups. This research contributes to the understanding of the complex dynamics between aid policies and radicalization, emphasizing the need for comprehensive approaches to address the potential unintended consequences of aid reduction. This study examines the impact of long-term refugee camps on individuals' psychological well-being and their sense of social significance, with a particular focus on the potential relationship between these factors and radicalization tendencies. Through a comprehensive analysis of existing literature and empirical evidence, this research highlights the adverse effects of prolonged stay in refugee camps, including decreased levels of happiness and a diminished sense of personal worth. Moreover, this investigation explores the potential correlation between these negative experiences and the likelihood of individuals adopting radical ideologies. By adopting a scholarly approach, this study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on the complex interplay between refugee camp conditions, psychological well-being, and radicalization, thereby shedding light on the multifaceted dynamics that shape the lives of displaced populations. This research paper examines the apprehensions individuals harbor regarding peace negotiations following a conflict, relinquishing aggressive strategies, and assuming financial responsibility for reparations. This research thesis examines the intricate relationship between radicals and society, focusing on the premise that effective communication devoid of violence necessitates a sequential process encompassing reconciliation, negotiation, and ultimately, de-radicalization. By exploring the interplay between these key stages, this study aims to shed light on the fundamental mechanisms that facilitate peaceful dialogue between radicals and society. This study examines the factors contributing to effective group disengagement among offenders, with a specific focus on victim-centered transitional justice instruments. By comparing the disengagement processes of offenders with the implementation of victim-centered transitional justice mechanisms, this research aims to identify the key factors that facilitate successful disengagement. This study examines the potential impact of restorative justice techniques, specifically public apologies and conversations, on the pursuit of justice for victims. While these techniques have shown promise in enhancing the restoration of justice, there is a concern that they may impede the process of radicalization reduction. The study aims to explore the dual effects of restorative justice techniques on justice outcomes and the pace of radicalization reduction. By analysing existing literature and empirical evidence, this research seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of the potential benefits and drawbacks associated with the implementation of restorative justice techniques in the pursuit of justice for victims.

Article Details

Author Biography




Chief Coordination Officer, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Centre of Excellence on Countering Violent Extremism, Pakistan



Director General, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Centre of Excellence on Countering Violent Extremism, Pakistan



Manager Enforcement, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Centre of Excellence on Countering Violent Extremism, Pakistan



Manager MIS, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Centre of Excellence on Countering Violent Extremism, Pakistan



Enforcement Officer, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Centre of Excellence on Countering Violent Extremism, Pakistan




Alonso, R. & Bada, J. D. (2016) What Role Have Former ETA Terrorists Played in Counterterrorism and Counter radicalization Initiatives in Spain? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 39 (11), 982–1006.

Alonso, R. (2011) Why Do Terrorists Stop?: Analyzing Why ETA Members Abandon or Continue with Terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 34 (9), 696–716.

Altier, M. B., Thorough good, C. N. & Horgan, J. G. (2014) Turning away from terrorism: Lessons from psychology, sociology, and criminology. Journal of Peace Research 51 (5), 647–661.

Barelle, K. (2015) Pro-Integration: Disengagement from and life after extremism. Behavioral Science of Terrorism and Political Aggression.

Barrile, L. G. (2015) I Forgive You, but You Must Die: Murder Victim Family Members, the Death Penalty, and Restorative Justice. Victims & Offenders 10 (3), 239–269.

Bertram, L. (2015) How Could a Terrorist be De-Radicalised? Journal for De-radicalization

Bjørgo, T. & Horgan, J. (2009) Introduction. In: Bjørgo, T. & Horgan, J. (eds.) Leaving terrorism behind: Disengagement from political violence. Routledge, London, pp. 1–13.

Buckley-Zistel, S. & Oettler (2011) Was bedeutut Transitional Justice? In: Buckley-Zistel, S. & Kater, T. (eds.) Nach Krieg, Gewalt und Repression: Vom schwierigen Umgang mit der Vergangenheit, 1. Aufl. Nomos, Baden-Baden, pp. 21–38.

Clubb, G. (2014) "From Terrorists to Peacekeepers": The IRA's disengagement and the role of community networks. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 37 (10), 842–861.

Clubb, G. (2016) The Role of Former Combatants in Preventing Youth Involvement in Terrorism in Northern Ireland: A Framework for Assessing Former Islamic State Combatants. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 39 (9), 842–861.

Cronin, A. K. (2009) How terrorism ends: Understanding the decline and demise of terrorist campaigns. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2013) Promoting Exit from Violent Extremism: Themes and Approaches. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 36 (2), 99–115.

El-Said, H. (2012) De-Radicalising Islamists: Programs and their Impact in Muslim Majority States. Developments in Radicalisation and Political Violence.

Ferguson, N., Burgess, M. & Hollywood, I. (2015) Leaving Violence Behind: Disengaging from Politically Motivated Violence in Northern Ireland. Political Psychology 36 (2), 199–214.

Ghosn, F. (2010) Getting to the Table and Getting to Yes: An Analysis of International Negotiations1. International Studies Quarterly 54 (4), 1055–1072.

Gibson, J. L. (2002) Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation: Judging the Fairness of Amnesty in South Africa. American Journal of Political Science 46 (3), 540–556.

Gromet, D. M. & Darley, J. M. (2006) Restoration and Retribution: How Including Retributive Components Affects the Acceptability of Restorative Justice Procedures. Social Justice Research 19 (4), 395–432.

Horgan, J. & Braddock, K. (2010) Rehabilitating the Terrorists?: Challenges in Assessing the Effectiveness of De-radicalization Programs. Terrorism and Political Violence 22 (2), 267–291.

Mühlhausen, A. (2017). Conflict Management, Transitional Justice and De-radicalization–Different, but common goals. Journal for Deradicalization, (9), 260-291.

Horgan, J. (2008) De-radicalization or Disengagement?: A Process in Need of Clarity and a Counterterrorism Initiative in Need of Evaluation. Perspectives on Terrorism 11 (4), 3–8. Horgan, J. (2009) Individual Disengagement: A psychological analysis. In: Bjørgo, T. & Horgan, J. (eds.) Leaving terrorism behind: Disengagement from political violence.

Horgan, J., Altier, M. B., Shortland, N. & Taylor, M. (2016) Walking away: The disengagement and de-radicalization of a violent right-wing extremist. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1–15.

Humphrey, M. (2012) Marginalizing "victims" and "terrorists": modes of exclusion in the reconciliation process. In: Renner, J. & Spencer, A. (eds.) Reconciliation after terrorism: Strategy, possibility or absurdity? Routledge, London, New York, pp. 48–67.

Knight, M. & Özerdem, A. (2004) Guns, Camps and Cash: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reinsertion of Former Combatants in Transitions from War to Peace. Journal of Peace Research 41 (4), 499–516.

Mullins, S. (2010) Rehabilitation of Islamist terrorists: Lessons from criminology. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict 3 (3), 162–193.

Negotiation 13 (1), 37–54.

Neumann, P. R. (2013) the trouble with radicalization. International Affairs 89 (4), 873–893.

Phayal, A., Khadka, P. B. & Thyne, C. L. (2015) What Makes an Ex-Combatant Happy?: A Micro-Analysis of Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration in South Sudan. International Studies Quarterly, 654–668.

Pruitt, D. G. (2006) Negotiation with Terrorists. International Negotiation 11 (2), 371–392.

Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, S. L., Ghez, J. J. & Boucek, C. (2011) Deradicalizing Islamist extremists. RAND, Santa Monica, CA.

Rashwan, D. (2009) the renunciation of violence by Egyptian Jihadi organizations. In: Bjørgo, T. & Horgan, J. (eds.) Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Routledge, London, New York, pp. 113–131.

Schmid, A. P. (2012) Strengthening the Role of Victims and Incorporating Victims in Efforts to Counter Violent Extremism and Terrorism. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Studies.

Schmid, A. P. (2014) Al-Qaeda's "Single Narrative" and Attempts to Develop Counter- Narratives: The State of Knowledge. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Studies.

Wanis-St. John, A. (2006) Back-Channel Negotiation: International Bargaining in the Shadows. Negotiation Journal 22 (2), 119–144.