Main Article Content



The importance of research lies in the distinctive nature of Sufi poetry characterized by the divine love. This characteristic has been considered the main source of Sufi poetry. Furthermore, the chosen timeframe for the research represents the era of flourishing Sufism, where its prominent figures, such as Al-Hallaj, Ash-Shibli, Tha'l-Nun Al-Misri, Al-Niffari, Ibn Al-Khayzani, and others, gained fame both in the East and the West. Therefore, the study of this poetry aims to uncover the paradox that surprises the reader by concealing the primary meaning and guiding them towards the secondary meaning and the intentions of the text.

Article Details

Author Biography



University of Kufa, College of Arts, Department of Arabic Language, Najaf, Iraq


Strategy of presence and absence in the collection "The Dance of the Last Letter" by the writer Kamal Al-Din: Zeina Drajie, Master's Thesis, Mohamed Khider University in Biskra, Faculty of Arts and Languages, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, 2019-2020: 21.

See: Arabic Grammar and Modern Lesson - Research in the Method: Dr. Abdo Al-Rajhi, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiyya, D.M., D.T., 1979: 125.

Linguistic Studies: Dr. Mohamed Ali Al-Khawli, Dar Al-Uloom, Riyadh, D.T., 1982: 52.

The Structure of the Major Text: Dr. Sobhi Al-Ta'an, Alam Al-Fikr, Kuwait, D.T., 1992: 436.

Same source: 436.

The Deep Structure and Its Significance among Arab Grammarians: Prof. Abdullah Ahmed Jadd Al-Karim Hassan, Al-Alwakah,

See: Same source: 4.

Quoting from: The Deep Structure and Its Significance among Arabs: 11.

And the gap or tension distance according to Abu Dib: a concept whose effectiveness is not limited to poetry but is the foundation of the entire human experience. However, it is a distinctive characteristic or a necessary condition for artistic experience or, more precisely, for poetic observation or vision as something distinct from - and may be contrary to - ordinary daily experience. See: In Poetry: Kamal Abu Dib, Arab Research Institute, Beirut, 1st edition, 1987: 20.

In Poetry: 57.

Same source: 58.

Arabic Poetry: Adonis, Dar Al-Adab, Beirut, 1st edition, 1985: 75.

Abu Bakr Al-Shibli, his name is Dalaf. It is said: Ibn Jahdar, and it is said: Ibn Ja'far, and it is said: his name is Ja'far ibn Yunus. He was born in Samarra, but his origin is from Khorasan. He was known as Ibn Jahdar. See: Tabaqat Al-Sufiyya: Abu Abdul Rahman Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Salami (d. 412 AH), edited and annotated by Mustafa Abdul Qadir Atta, Dar Al-Kutub, Beirut, 1st edition, 1419 AH - 1998: 257, and Hilyat Al-Awliya' wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiya: Abu Nu'aym Ahmad Ibn Abdullah Al-Isfahani (d. 430 AH), Dar Al-Fikr, Beirut, D.T., 1416 AH - 1996: 10/336, and Tarikh Baghdad: Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Thabit Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mahdi Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi (d. 463 AH), edited by Bashar Awwad Marouf, Dar Al-Gharb Al-Islami, Beirut, 1st edition, 1422 AH - 2001: 16/563, Al-Risalah Al-Qushiriyyah: Abdul Karim Ibn Hawazen Abdul Malik Al-Qushiri (d. 465 AH), edited by Dr. Abdul Halim Mahmoud and Dr. Mahmoud Ibn Al-Sharif, Dar Al-Ma'arif, Cairo, D.T., D.T., 1/116, and Al-Muntazam fi Tarikh Al-Umam wa Al-Muluk: Jamal al-D

Compilation and Editing of the Diwan of Abu Bakr al-Shibli Jafar ibn Yunus, known as Dulf ibn Jahdar (d. 334 AH), with footnotes and an introduction by Dr. Kamil Mustafa al-Shaibi, Dar al-Tadamun, Baghdad, 1st edition, 1386 AH - 1967 CE: 102.

Structural Contradiction in the Poetic Works of 'Az al-Din al-Manasirah, Diana Rachel,

He is Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Thabit ibn Ibrahim ibn Farah al-Kinanani al-Muqri, al-Adib al-Shafi'i al-Hami, the renowned Egyptian scholar known as Ibn al-Khizani, the famous poet (d. 562 AH). He was ascetic and pious, and in Egypt, there is a sect attributed to him and believe in his teachings. He has a poetry collection mostly related to asceticism. Refer to: Wafayat al-A'yan: 4/64.

Ibn al-Khizani, the Sufi Poet from Egypt: His Life and Poetry, Dr. Ali Sadik Hussein, Dar al-Ma'arif, Egypt, Cairo, 1st edition, 115).

Contemporary Arabic Poetry: Its Issues and Artistic and Spiritual Phenomena, Dr. Az al-Din Ismail, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, Cairo, 3rd edition, 1966: 68).

The Artistic Image in Sufi Poetry in the Seventh Century Hijri: Nasreen Star Jabbar al-Saadi, Ph.D. thesis, University of Baghdad, College of Arts, 1429 AH - 2008 CE: 153-154).

(He is Muhammad ibn Abd al-Jabbar ibn al-Hasan al-Naffari, named after the town of Naffara between Kufa and Basra (d. 354 AH). He was a religious scholar and his notable work is "al-Mawaqif wa al-Mukhatabat" (The Positions and Addresses). Refer to: Al-A'lam by Khair al-Din al-Zarkali, Dar al-Ilm Lil-Malayin, Beirut, 5th edition, 1980: 6/184.

The Pronunciation and Silence: Sufi Texts by Sheikh Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Jabbar al-Naffari: Al-Shadhraat, Al-Munajat, Al-Diwan, edited by Qasim Muhammad Abbas, Dar Azmanat Lil-Nashr, Amman, Jordan, 1st edition, 2001: 115-116.

The Poetic Image and Structure: Dr. Muhammad Hasan Abdullah, Dar al-Ma'arif, Cairo, 1st edition, 1981: 028).

The Poetic Image in Modern Arabic Criticism: Dr. Bashra Musa Saleh, Al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-Arabi, Beirut, 1st edition, 1994: 64).

He is Abu Mu'ayth al-Hussein ibn Mansur ibn Muhammad al-Baidawi. His grandfather was a Zoroastrian, and he grew up in the city of Wasit in Iraq. He was killed in Baghdad (309 AH), allegedly due to his claim of divinity, and after his death, his body was subjected to desecration. Refer to: Tabaqat al-Sufiyyah: 103, (Refer to: Tarikh Baghdad: 8/688, Al-Muntathim: 31/201, and Wafayat al-A'yan: 2/140).

The Diwan of al-Hallaj: Its Creation and Improvement: Kamil Mustafa al-Shaibi, Dar Afaq Arabiya, Baghdad, 2nd edition, 1404 AH - 1984 CE: 34).

Refer to: The Authority of the Text in the Diwan of al-Barzakh and al-Sakin: Abdulhamid Hima and others, Publications of the Literary Club, Mentouri University Constantine, Algeria, 1st edition, 2001: 78-79).

The Literary Nature of the Sufi Text between Communicative Utility and Artistic Creativity: Dr. Muhammad Zaid, 'Alam al-Kutub al-Hadith, Irbid, Jordan, 1st edition, 1432 AH - 2011 CE: 122-123).

Diwan al-Hallaj: 73).

Poetic Issues: Roman Jakobson, translated by Muhammad al-Wali and Mubarak Hanoun, Dar Toubkal Publishing, Casablanca, Morocco, 1st edition, 1988: 79).

The Text and the Recipient's Interaction in Literary Discourse According to al-Ma'arri: Dr. Hamid Samir, Publications of the Arab Writers Union, Damascus, 1st edition, 2005: 10).

Sin and Expiation: From Structuralism to Analytical Approach - A Critical Reading of a Contemporary Model: Dr. Abdullah Muhammad al-Ghudami, Egyptian General Authority for Books, 4th edition, 1998: 950).

Regarding: Islamic Sufism in Literature and Ethics: Dr. Zaki Mubarak, Egypt, 1357 AH - 1938 CE: 77-122).

Sin and Expiation: 270).

Dhu al-Nun al-Misri (d. 245 or 246 or 248), also known as Abu al-Fayd from Upper Egypt, titled "the Enlightened Scholar." He was prolific in poetry, went to Baghdad, and later returned to Egypt. He does not have a published poetry collection. Refer to: Tabaqat al-Sufiyyah: 27, Hilyat al-Awliya: 9/331, Tarikh Baghdad: 9/373, Al-Muntathim: 11/344, Wafayat al-A'yan: 1/315).

Hilyat al-Awliya: 9/378).

The Aesthetics of Sufism as a Concept and Language: Hussein Juma, Al-Mawqif al-Adabi Magazine, Vol. 31, Issue 364, Syria, August 31, 2001: 22).