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Language is the poet's tool through which they express their poetic experience, regardless of its subject. The secret of beauty and impact lies in the poet's ability to use language in a unique way. Among the mechanisms of special language usage are the techniques of presentation and delay, which the poet modifies to express the essence of the meaning that comes within the framework of general utility language. One of the most prominent meanings of presentation and delay is to draw the recipient's attention to enable the meaning itself. Usually, the important aspects are presented, giving rise to a new meaning that is different from the original meaning.

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University of Kufa, College of Arts, Najaf, Iraq


Book, Seebawayh: 1/34.

Evidence of the Inimitability: 106.

See: Principles of Grammar: 130-133.

Eloquence and Style: 248.

See: The Proof in the Sciences of the Qur'an: 3/233.

Language of Poetry According to Al-Jawahiri: 88.

Poetics: 64.

See: Eloquence and Style: 272.

See: Precedence and Delay between Grammar and Rhetoric: 98.

See: The Gems of Eloquence in Meanings, Expressions, and Elegance: 126, El-Izah: 2/55.

The Gems of Eloquence in Meanings, Expressions, and Elegance: 116.

Precedence and Delay in the Noble Qur'an: 62.

The Gems of Eloquence in Meanings, Expressions, and Elegance: 117.

Diwan of Al-Nabigha Al-Ja'di: 30, The Individual's Device: Everything needed, including the device for the deceased, the bride, the traveler, the fighter, and others.

See: Al-Nabigha Al-Ja'di and His Poetry: 17.

See: Precedence and Delay in the Noble Qur'an: 62.

Diwan of Al-Nabigha Al-Ja'di: 141, Al-Mahrib: Here is the refuge and sanctuary.

See: Evidence of the Inimitability: 129.

Diwan of Al-Nabigha Al-Ja'di: 72, Taharnah: We threw it, cast it, and its origin is in the eye that discharges dust and throws it. See: 83.

Kindah: They are the sons of Lakhm bin Adi bin Al-Harith bin Mura bin Add bin Zaid, and their mother is Ramlah bint Asad bin Rabiah bin Nizar. See: Jamharat Ansab Al-Arab: 425.

Al-'Aqiq: It is the blessed valley near Al-Baqi', four miles away from the city. He descended there and said, "This is 'Aqiq al-Ardh," so it was named as such. See: Mu'jam Ma Ista'jam: 4/1328, article (A'iq).

Ak: The Banu 'Ak bin 'Adthan bin 'Abdullah bin Al-Azd, from the tribe of Kahlan from the Qahtani lineage. Others say they belong to the 'Adnanite lineage, and 'Ak is younger than Mudad bin 'Adnan. His full name is 'Ak bin Addith bin 'Adnan bin Add, the brother of Mudad. See: Mu'jam Al-Qaba'il Al-'Arabiyyah Al-Qadimah Wal-Hadithah: 2/802.

See: Kindah and Its Role in the Arabian Peninsula: 20.

Diwan of Al-Nabigha Al-Ja'di: 48, Yawm Falaaj: The day of the Banu 'Amir against the Banu Hanifah, the waves rose: clashed together.

Al-Falaaj: A city in the land of Yamamah, belonging to the Banu Ja'dah, Qushayr, and Ka'b bin Rabiah. Anything that flows like a stream from a spring is called Falaaj, and any canal that branches off from a spring on the surface of the earth is called Falaaj. See: Mu'jam Al-Buldan: 5/271, article (Falaaj).

The rhetoricians describe excess as an unacceptable statement both rationally and conventionally. Their example of this is the statement of Abu Nuwas: "And you have made the polytheists so hidden that even the specks of dust fear you." Diwan Abu Nuwas: 78, and see: Al-Matuwwal: 78, The Phenomenon of Excess in Ancient Arabic Poetry, Its Motives and Consequences, Abu Nuwas - Al-Mutanabbi - Ibn Hani' Al-Andalusi, a Psycholinguistic Study (Master's Thesis): 6.

Diwan of Al-Nabigha Al-Ja'di: 59, Al-Ukhdaan: The friends.

As in the verse of Al-Khansa' (from Al-Waafir): And were it not for the abundance of mourners around me, I would have killed myself.

See: Diwan of Al-Khansa': 72.

See: The Book, Sibawayh: 1

See: M.N.: 1/24.

See: Min Balaghat al-Nathm al-Arabi: 1/264.

Jawahir al-Balagha: 147.

from his mother's breast and weaned. Al-Muftala: Abandoned and separated from his mother's chest.

See: Ma'laqat 'Amr ibn Kulthum, Dirasah wa Tahleel (Research): 73.

Diwan al-Nabigha al-Ja'di: 185. Al-Ghalb: The one with a thick neck. Al-Murajah: The patient and wise one.

See: Al-Matuwal: 29.

Diwan al-Nabigha al-Ja'di: 173-174. Bakr Bani Thamud: The she-camel that the people of Thamud hamstrung, and they perished because of it. Al-Firat: The early generations. Al-Ma'ris: The one who marries off a traveler when he arrives at night.

Abu Musa al-Ash'ari: Abdullah bin Qais bin Salim bin Hadar bin Harb bin 'Amir bin 'Anaz bin Bakr bin 'Adhr bin Wail bin Najiyah bin al-Jamahir bin al-Ash'ar. His kunya is Abu 'Ammar, and he is well-known by it. He belongs to the Ash'ariyyin Al-Qahtaniyyah tribe. The Prophet appointed him as the governor of Zabid and Aden. He was the arbitrator chosen by Ali bin Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) from among his party on the day of Siffin. See: Asad al-Ghaba: 3/535.

See: The Language of Poetry in the Diwan of al-Lusoos in the Pre-Islamic and Islamic Eras (PhD thesis): 99.

Diwan al-Nabigha al-Ja'di: 40. "Hamat al-'Aqrab" means he poisoned her.

See: The Great Animal's Life: 1/122.

See: Al-Khasa'is: 2/382.

See: The Issues of the Object of the Verb in Arabic Grammar: 395.

Diwan al-Nabigha al-Ja'di: 49. "al-Ruhat" means the group, "Qurrah" means the son of Hubayrah, "al-Muzallaj" means the despicable one lacking in everything, "Bad" means he perished and died, "al-Qarih" means the peaceful and flat land, "al-Khawalij" means the concerns, "al-A'ran" means the mountain with a nose, and also the large army, "al-Hajj" means the aim and need, and "Tahmilaj" means to walk swiftly and well.

Qurrat bin Hubayrah bin 'Amir bin Sulaymah bin Qushayr bin Ka'b bin Rabiah bin 'Amir bin Sa'sa'ah al-Qushayri. See: Asad al-Ghabah: 4/102.

'Imran bin Murrat bin Dihl bin Shayban. He was killed by Qurrat bin Hubayrah on the day of Qarih Ahwa. This is the day of Qawirah. See: Jamharat Ansab al-Arab: 143, Sharh Nqa'id Jarir wa al-Farazdaq: 2/572.

Ahwa: A mountain in the land of Yamamah for the Banu Hammad. See: Mu'jam Ma Isti'am: 1/206, entry "Hawa".

Al-Tud: The great mountain is also the name of the mountain overseeing 'Arafah. It extends to Sana'a and is called al-Sara'ah. It was named Sara'ah because of its height. See: Mu'jam al-Buldan: 4/46, entry "Tud".

See: Dalail al-I'jaz: 1/106.

Diwan al-Nabigha al-Ja'di: 98. "Labas" means living, associating, and continuing with them, "al-Musta's" means the substitute.

See: Al-Taqdim wa al-Ta'akhir fi al-Quran al-Kareem: 128.

It is narrated from 'Umar bin Abi Shabbah that "Al-Nabigha lived for 180 years, and he recited these verses to 'Umar bin al-Khattab. 'Umar asked him, 'How long did you stay with each people?' He replied, 'Sixty years.'" (Khazanat al-Adab: 1/512)

Diwan al-Nabigha al-Ja'di: 153.

'Aqiliyy is attributed to 'Aqil bin Ka'b and it is a tribe. It is said that he was born into slavery and was emancipated by an 'Aqiliyy woman. See: Khazanat al-Adab: 3/230.

Dhul Rumth: It is a valley in Tabalah because it is abundant with Rumth, which is a wild plant similar to thorns that camels graze on. See: Mu'jam al-Buldan: 3/68, entry "Rumth".