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The Russian Federation has always been a pioneer in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Within the territory of the former Soviet Union, the first nuclear reactor for electricity production began operation in 1954.1 The Soviet Union also developed other peaceful purposes for nuclear energy than electricity production. This was particularly the case in civil maritime transport, where nuclear energy has long been used as a means of power for Russian icebreakers. Today, the Russian Federation continues to play an important role in the peaceful worldwide use of nuclear energy. It is one of the world’s largest producers of nuclear energy and, in 2018, its 59 nuclear reactors produced 20.8% of all national power generation. The Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation announced its targets for future nuclear power generation increasing to 23% of total electricity requirements by 2020 and 30% by 2030. To achieve this, plans were announced to build 11 additional nuclear reactors by 2030.