Models of Actio Negatoria in the Law of Russia and European Countries

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Tikhon Podshivalov


Actio negatoria is necessary in a situation wherein no one questions the ownership of an object by the owner, and the object remains in his possession, but someone exploits it without sufficient legal basis, treats it just as if he was endowed with the opportunity and the right to use someone else’s object. Despite the apparent simplicity of actio negatoria in the legislation of European countries, three models of this lawsuit have been developed, built according to the actio negatoria design that existed at different stages of the development of Roman private law – the common law model, the Roman model, and the German model. This study is based on the method of analysis of judicial practice and the method of comparative law. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that actio negatoria is not a universal method of protection. It is necessary to deviate from the principle of residual attention of the legislator to actio negatoria, residual, first of all, compared to rei vindicatio. Based on the analysis of the three models of actio negatoria that exist in the law of European countries, a new, fourth model of this lawsuit is proposed. Only an immovable object can be the subject of an actio negatoria dispute. Actio negatoria cannot be used to challenge the registered right to immovable objects. Actio negatoria can be used to protect the subjective right of property from a violation of ownership which is produced by interfering with possession and which does not result in dispossession.

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